Demon Hierarchy in Abramelin the Mage

The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage details an extensive hierarchy of demons in hell. Below are the Chief Spirits and eight Sub-Princes.

The Chief Spirits (in alphabetical order)

Lucifer: From Latin, Lux, Light, and Fero, to bear, – A Light Bearer. There is a name “Lucifuge” also employed occasionally, from Lux, Light, and Fugio, to fly from, – He who shuns the Light.

Leviatan: From Hebrew, LVIThN (usually written Leviathan instead of Leviatan), – the Crooked or Piercing Serpent or Dragon.

Satan: From Hebrew, ShTN, = an Adversary.

Belial: From Hebrew, BLIOL, = a Wicked One.

The Eight Sub-Princes

Astarot: From Hebrew, OShThRVTh, = flocks, crowds or assemblies. Usually written “Ashtaroth”. Also a name of the Goddess Astarte; Esther is derived from the same root. Servants of Ashtaroth

Magot: May be from Hebrew, MOVTh, = small stones or pebbles; or from MG, = a changing of camp or place; or from Greek, Magos, a magician. Usually written Maguth. Compare the French word “Magot,” meaning “a sort of baboon,” and also “a hideous dwarfish man”; this expression is often used in fairy-tales to denote a spiteful dwarf or elf. This Spirit has also been credited with presiding over hidden treasure. Larousse derives the name either from ancient French or German. Servants of Magoth and Kore.

Asmodee: Usually written “Asmodeus,” and sometimes “Chashmodai”. Derived by some from the Hebrew word “Asamod,” to destroy or exterminate; and by others from the Persian verb “Azmonden,” = to tempt, to try or prove. Some Rabbins say that Asmodeus was the child of the incest of Tubal-Cain and his sister Naafrfah. Others say that he was the Demon of impurity. Others again relate that he was employed by Solomon in the building of the Temple at Jerusalem; that he then attempted to dethrone Solomon, to put himself in his place; but that the King vanquished him and the Angel Gabriel chased him into Egypt, and there bound him in a Grotto. The Rabbins say that when Asmodeus was working at the building of the Temple, he made use of no metal tool; but instead of a certain stone which cut ordinary stone as a diamond will glass. Servants of Asmodeus.

Belzebud: Also written frequently “Beelzebub“, “Baalzebub”, “Beelzebuth”, and “Beelzeboul”. From Hebrew, BOL, = Lord, and ZBVB,= Fly or Flies; Lord of Flies. Some derive the name from the Syriac “Beel d’Bobo,” = Master of Calumny, or nearly the same signification as the Greek word Diabolos, whence are derived the modern French and English “Diable” and “Devil”. Servants of Beelzebub.

Oriens: These four names of Oriens, Paimon, Ariton and Amaymon,are usually allotted to the Evil Kings of the four quarters of the World. Oriens, from Latin, Oriens, = rising or Eastern. This name is also written Uriens, from Latin, Uro, = to burn, or devour with flame. It is probably from Uriens that a mediaeval title of the Devil, viz., “Sir Urien”, is derived. The Name is also sometimes written “Urieus,” from Latin, “Urios”, a title given to Jupiter as presiding over the Wind. Urieus is also derivable from the Greek Adj. “Eurus, Eureia, Euru,” meaning vast or extensive. By the Rabbins he is also called SMAL, Samael, which is derived from the Hebrew root SML, which means “a figure, image, or idol”. It is a name given in the Qabalah to one of the Chief Evil Spirits. Servants of Oriens.

Paimon: Is also frequently written “Paymon”, and sometimes “Paimonia”. Probably from Hebrew, POMN, = a tinkling sound or small bell. This is again derived from the
Hebrew root POM, = to agitate, impel, or strike forward. The word POMN is employed in Exodus 28, 34; 28, 33; and 39, 25. Paimon is also called by the Rabbins by the title of OZAZL, Azazel, which is a name used in Leviticus with reference to the Scape-Goat. Its derivation is from OZ, = a Goat; and AZL, = to go away. It has frequently been warmly discussed whether the word in question means simply the Scape-Goat, or whether it signifies a Demon to whom that animal was dedicated. But in Rabbinic Demonology it is always used to mean one of the Chief Demons. Servants of Paymon.

Ariton: It is also often called “Egyn,” or “Egin”. This name may be derived from the Hebrew root ORH, = to lay bare, to make naked. It may also be derived from the Greek word Arhreton, = secret, or mysterious, in any sense good or bad. Egin, may be derivable from Hebrew, OGN, = to delay, hinder, or retard. There may also be a connection with the Greek Aix, Aigos, = a Goat. This Spirit is also called by the Rabbins OZAL, Azael, from the root OZ, which means both a Goat, and also vigour, vehemence of force; thus having partly the same root as “Azazel“. Servants of Ariton.

Amaimon: Also written frequently “Amaymon”; perhaps from the Greek word Maimon, present participle of Maimao; and A as an enforcing particle; hence Amaimon would mean “terrible violence and vehemence”. This Spirit is also called by the Rabbins MHZAL, Mahazael, perhaps from the root MZ, = to consume, or devour. Amaymon is spoken of in the various mediaeval Magical works as being a very potent Spirit, and the use of a ring, with Magical characters to hold before the mouth while conversing with him, is recommended as a protection against his deadly, fiery, and poisonous breath. Servants of Amaymon.

Joint Servants

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Reference

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