Non-Canonical Biblical Texts

As the orthodox Christian movement developed and grew, many of the other Christian sects were deemed "heretical" and censored. Modern archaeological evidence has uncovered many of their early writings that never made it into the Bible canon. Read articles about non-canonical Judeo-Christian texts below.

Satan and the Testament of Job


The Testament of Job, written sometime between 100 BC-100 AD, shows how Satan’s role and character evolved from a servant of God to the spirit of idolatry and vengeance.

Reader Q&A: How Do We Know About Traditions Outside the Bible

Still Life with Bible - Vincent van Gogh

We know by piecing all the manuscripts and archaeological finds from the last 3000-5000 years together into a big picture. Here’s what’s involved.

Reader Comments: Leviathan, Bible History, and The Book of Enoch

The Destruction of Leviathan - Gustave Dore

Should we use apocryphal books like the Book of Enoch as reference when we look at biblical history?

Adam’s Pact With the Devil

Adam and Eve, from the 'Stanza della Segnatura' - Raphael

Early legends about how Satan deceived Adam and Eve a second time – and his contract with Adam.

The Book of Enoch and the Pseudepigrapha

Enoch: Figures de la Bible - Gerard Hoet

Brief introduction to ancient texts not found in the Bible like the Book of Enoch.