Non-Canonical Biblical Texts

As the orthodox Christian movement developed and grew, many of the other Christian sects were deemed "heretical" and censored. Modern archaeological evidence has uncovered many of their early writings that never made it into the Bible canon. Read articles about non-canonical Judeo-Christian texts below.

Satan and the Testament of Job

Satan smiting Job with boils - William Blake

The Book of Job in the Hebrew bible was crafted to address human suffering and why bad things happen to good people. In it, Satan is a member of God's divine court who walks the earth looking for sin and reports back to God. When God brags about what a loyal servant Job is, Satan responds that is only so because God has blessed him with wealth, children, and health. If he did … [Read more...]

Reader Q&A: How Do We Know About Traditions Outside the Bible

Still Life with Bible - Vincent van Gogh

A reader asks: I am a person who looks for information on the types of things that are on your site. I like to know the real truths and origins of things like this but, where do you get this type of information from. Like for instance, about things that are not in the bible. God had man create the bible so we can know the truth but I see more information about all these people … [Read more...]

Reader Comments: Leviathan, Bible History, and The Book of Enoch

The Destruction of Leviathan - Gustave Dore

A reader comments: Hope this doesn't insult in any way, but you have been misinformed concerning the nature of Leviathan, listed as one of your Demons. The "Apocryphal" book of Enoch (one of the latter sons of Adam and Eve) is not included in the Holy Bible, primarily because the contents cannot be verified historically. He did exist(can be verified) but never contributed to … [Read more...]

Adam’s Pact With the Devil

Adam and Eve, from the 'Stanza della Segnatura' - Raphael

Everyone knows the story of the fall of Adam and Eve. But what happened to them once they were kicked out of the Garden of Eden? Some authors elaborated on how Adam and Eve were overcome with guilt and repented, while others describe Satan's continued assault. For example, the apocryphal Life of Adam and Eve, which was written around the first century CE gives an expanded … [Read more...]

The Book of Enoch and the Pseudepigrapha

Enoch: Figures de la Bible - Gerard Hoet

Jewish Traditions Not Included In the Bible The Pseudepigrapha is a collection of various works written approximately between 200 BCE and 100 CE that were left out of the Old Testament. They tend to be written in Hebrew or Aramaic or occasionally Greek, and tend to be attributed to well known biblical heroes like Abraham, Moses, and Noah. Some of these books were included … [Read more...]