With corruption plaguing the Catholic Church, Reform movements, science, and the rise of literacy gradually chipped away at its power.
The Protestant Reformation started in 1517 when Martin Luther published his 95 Theses on the abuses of those in power within the Catholic Church. The event kick-started the efforts of John Calvin and other early Protestants who eventually separated from the Catholic Church. Read articles about the Protestant Reformation below.
Europe underwent a number of political shifts and social transformations between 1000-1700 leading to the Protestant Reformation and the witch craze.